English for Egyptian secondary stage

Hello! Units & The English stories

Units 13, 14 and 15

                                                                                                        Unit 13  

                                                                                                       ModernWonders

inventions

اختراعات

move on to

ينتقل إلى

disadvantages

عيوب

bill

فاتورة

choice

اختيار

owe

يدين ل

cause

يسبب

treatment

معاملة

particularly

على وجه الخصوص

wonders

عجائب

text message

رسالة نصية

on television

في التليفزيون

cost

تكلفة

ordinary

عادى

international calls

مكالمات دولية

pay

يدفع

radio programmes

برامح إذاعية

advance

تقدم

radio station

محطة إذاعية

medical

طبي

damage

يتلف

replace

يستبدل

air travel

السفر جوا

damaged hearts

قلوب مريضة

immediately

في الحال

lungs

الرئتين

incredible

لا يصدق

farming

زراعة

communicate

يتصل ب

produce

ينتج

invent

يخترع

space travel

السفر للفضاء

agree

يوافق

instead of

بدلا من

differentiate

يبين الفرق

bright

مضيء

agree with

يتفق مع شخص

increase

زيادة

in a hurry

مستعجل

connected by the internet

متصل عن طريق الانترنت

in my opinion

في رايى

add to

يضيف إلى

get on (a plane)

يركب طائرة

enable

يساعد

fact

حقيقة

explore

يستكشف

refer (red) to

يشير إلى

universe

الكون

crash

يصطدم ب

design

تصميم

tourist guide

مرشد سياحي

lightweight

خفيف الوزن

afford

يتحمل

equipment

معدات

submarine

غواصة

development

تطور

bad for

مضر ل

range

مجال

lighthouse

فنار

solar power

الطاقة الشمسية

disease – resistant

مقاوم للمرض

ramp

منحدر

intensive

مكثف

colonize

يستعمر

irrigation

الري

available

متاح

nutritious

مغذى

majority

الأغلبية

the Pharaohs

الفراعنة

population

سكان

steps

درجات في سلم

realize

يدرك

adapt

يتكيف مع

on top of

على قمة

do a sport

يمارس رياضة

pull …. up

يسحب ... لأعلى

get out of

يخرج من

on the other hand

من ناحية أخرى

resist

يقاوم

fill in

يملآ ب

irrigate

يروى

advantages

مميزات

in the direction of

في اتجاه

personal

شخصى

work on

يعمل في

computers

الحاسبات الشخصية

latest

احدث

communicate

يتصل

break down

يتعطل

disadvantages

عيوب

teenager

مراهق

illustrate

يشرح

Wonders of the modern world

  @ Hundreds of years  ago, a list was made of the Seven Wonders of the world .

 The Lighthouse at Alexandria and the Great Pyramid of Giza were among them .

The others were buildings or large statues.

@ What are the wonders of the modern world ?

 Let's look at two of the most important wonders which are not buildings .

   @ Thirty years ago, computers were huge, expensive machines which filled rooms .

 Hardly anyone could buy them because they cost so much .

@ Today, however, there are millions of cheap computers in offices and homes across

 the world.

@In some countries, many ordinary people have bought one or more computers, which are

 connected by the internet to shops, banks and offices. More and more people are shopping,

paying their bills, studying and doing many other things by computer .

@During the last hundred years, there have also been enormous advances in medical treatment .

@  X-rays, for example make it possible to see what is happening inside our bodies.

@Doctors can also replace damaged hearts and lungs. No other science has done more to increase

 our health and happiness .

 @There are other wonders that can be added to this list, such   as space travel and

new ways of farming which produce better food .

                                                                          ******************* 

Questions

1   .What are the advantage and disadvantages of the plane ?     

@ Advantages: The plane has made the world a smaller place. People can travel to other countries in a very short time .

Disadvantages :The plane causes air and noise Pollution .

2. How is the mobile phone useful to us ?

@  We can talk to people anywhere in the world immediately . We can also send a text message .

3. What is the disadvantage of the mobile phone ?

                                                          مكلف     It is costly .  -                       

4. How has the radio brought happiness to us ?

@- We can get news from all over the world in different languages .

5. What problems can you find when you use the radio ?

@It can sometimes be difficult to find a station . And when you have  found the station, it's sometimes difficult to hear clearly .

6. How many wonders were there in the ancient world ?

. @ seven wonders

7. What were the seven wonders of the ancient world ?

  @The Great pyramids at Giza, the Lighthouse at Alex, and some old buildings and large statues.

8. How many wonders were in Egypt ?

*There were two wonders, the lighthouse at Alex. and the pyramids.

  9. Why was it difficult to buy a computer in the past ?          

  @Because it was huge, expensive and filled the room .               

10. In your opinion, what makes the computer more common ?

  @It is cheap and is used in shops, banks and offices.

11. What is the computer used for ?

   @It is used for shopping, Paying bills, studying and doing many other things.

12. Medical treatment has developed in the last few years. Show how ?

   @ Medical treatment has witnessed a lot of advances. X-rays, for  example,make it possible to see what is happening inside our bodies.

13. How can doctors treat the damaged hearts and lungs ?

   @ They can replace them .

14.What do you think makes space travel a wonder of the modern world?

  @It enables people to explore the universe beyond their own world .

15. How can space travel help ordinary people?

  @The science and technology related to space travel have been used in everyday life .

The design of the  development of new materials which can be used for everyday things

 such as medical equipment.

16. What are the new ways of farming that help produce better food ?

   @ Disease – resistant crops, more intensive use of land, better   

     irrigation and better understanding of nature .

17. What do you think the writer means by better food ?

  @ He means healthy food.

18. Do the people who made the wonders of the modern world need the same qualities

of the ancient peoples ?

   @ Yes, but they may also need to work as part of a group of experts in   different fields,

 and of course the can use technology .

19. What can we learn from people in the past, like the Ancient Egyptians ?

  @ We can learn that many things are possible, even without modern technology.

20. What qualities were needed by the people who built the wonders of the

 ancient world ?

  @imagination; technical knowledge and skills .the ability to inspire, leading and

motivating other people .strength and determination.

21. What do you think will be the wonders of the future world ?

   @Space stations, robots .

22. Why do you think people in the future may learn from us today ?

   @They will realize that we can adapt to changes in climate and  population .

23. Do you think ordinary people will travel into or live in space ?

 @ Humans may need to colonies space . On the other hand, it will  always by very expensive so it won't be available to the majority of  the world's population.

                                 *****************************

                                            The استعمال

The تستخدم

The لاتستخدم

1- أشياء فريدة فى الكون

 ( The sun / moon / sky / earth )

2- عندما نتحدث عن شيئ معين نقصده

 The music was wonderful .

 I like staying in the countryside .

 3-  مع أسماء الدول المركبة / بحار / محيطات / سلاسل الجبال )

The USA / the Nile / the Atlantic Ocean / the Red Sea / the Alps / the Sudan 

4- أسماء تكرر فى نفس الجملة

I’d like to buy a car . The car will cost me $5000.

5- عندما نتحدث عن حيوان مفرد يعبر عن فصيلة من الحيوانات وليس عن حيوان معين

The elephant is found in India . .

6- the + adj +est مع مقارنة الصفات  

   the smallest animal .

7- مع عبارات المقارنة

 The more you study , the more you know .

 The faster you drive , the sooner you arrive .

7- مع اماكن الترفية و الاختراعات و

الألات الموسيقية    

(The cinema / theatre / radio / The National club / the internet / the piano / the guitar  )

8- تاتى قبل الصفة لتدل علىطبقة او مجموعة من الناس فى المجتمع

 The rich ------  rich peopleالاغنياء

the poor / the old / the young /

the unemployed  العاطلون

1- عندما نعبر عن أفكار عامة

 او مع  الأسماء الجمع التى تشير الى النوع كله

 ( milk / bread / meat / men / women / doctors

Women live longer than men .

2-واللغات  قبل الوجبات و المواد الدراسية

( lunch / breakfast / dinner / English  / Chemistry )

 3- قبل الشهور و المواسم

( winter / January / July )

  4- بعد حرف جر و قبل اسم يشير لمعنى عام work / house / school/ home / prison / hospital / university / college / church

  - The criminal المجرم  was sent to prison

 5-مع معظم البلاد والمدن و القارات و الجبال المفردة  

FranceLondon – Asia – Mount Everest.

6- مع الاسماء المعنوية  

 beauty – love – happiness – Democracy / sadness / truth

7- مع الألعاب الرياضة

 Football is a popular game .

8 - لاتستخدم مع الكلمات

  bed – work – home

-         it’s time to go to bed .,

-         Come on . Let’s go home .

-         when do you finish work .

 

                                                                      Unit 14                      

                                                                   Jules Verne

hot air balloon

منطاد

port

ميناء

rubber

مطاط

Nantes

اسم مدينة

come out

ينتشر

hide

يختفي

exploration

استكشاف

arrest

يقبض على

lawyer

محامى

discover

يكتشف

court

محكمة

description

وصف

law

قانون

arrested

مقبوض عليه

realize

يدرك

familiar

مألوف

science fiction

خيال علمي

horseback

ظهر الخيل

novel

رواية

speak for

يتحدث نيابة عن

busy with

مشغول ب

Calcutta

مدينة كالكتا

hear of

يسمع من

railway line

خط سكك حديدية

leave for

يغادر إلى

unfortunately

لسوء الحظ

pay for

يدفع ل

the Pacific

المحيط الهادي

difference

اختلاف

kidnap

يخطف شخص

well-known

معروف

rescue

ينقذ

grow up

يكبر

fuel

وقود

passenger

مسافر

International Date

التوقيت الدولي

city centre

وسط البلد

during

أثناء

argument

مجادلة

manage

ينجح

disagreement

خلاف في الرأي

illness

مرض

criminal

مجرم

traffic jam

ازدحام المرور

reach

يصل إلى

flu

مرض الأنفلونزا

servant

خادم

infect

بعدى

Bombay

مدينة بومباي

avoid

يتجنب

argue

يجادل

diseases

أمراض

believe

يعتقد

miss

يفتقد

run away

يهرب

take off

تقلع الطائرة

hurry to

يسرع إلى

purpose

هدف

Around The World in Eighty days  

 @The story begins in a London club on October 2, 1872.

@Phileas  Fogg, a rich man, has an  argument with a friend about how  long it would take him to travel round  the world,

 @Fogg's friend does not believe that Fogg can finish the journey in 80 days.

@If he succeeds, Fogg will win $ 20,000.

@ Fogg leaves London, with his servant Passé partout, at 8.45 pm  on October 2.

@They will have to return at the same time on December 21.

@After seven days, they reach Suez, where they meet a man called Fix.

@Fix is a policeman who thinks that Fogg is  the criminal he is looking for. The three men travel to Bombay by ship, then to Calcutta by train .

@Unfortunately, the railway line is not finished and they need to travel part of the way by elephant .

@On their journey, they save a young woman from  death . She is called Aouda and

 she goes with them on their  journey. From Calcutta, they travel by ship to Hong Kong, then across the Pacific to San Francisco.

@In San Francisco, Fogg, Passé partout, Fix and Aouda catch the train to New York,

 but during this journey Passépartout is kidnapped Fogg rescues his servant, but they get to New York late andmiss their boat to  Liverpool.

@After fuel problems, the next boat finally reaches Britain.

@As soon as they arrive, Fix arrests Fogg . He quickly realizes that Fogg is not the real criminal,

@but by now they have missed their train to London, lost a day and so lost the money

@However, Passé partout  discovers that it is December 20, not December  Because they hadtraveled east, they had crossed theInternational Date Line and saved a day!

@ Fogg and Passé partout  hurry to the club and arrive in time to win the 20,000 . 

                          ***********************************

Questions on The author

1. When was Jules Verne born ? Where ?

 @He was born in 1828 in Nantes in northern France .

2. What was his nationality ?

@ French .

3. What was his job ?

@  A lawyer  like his father.

4. Where did he live ?

@ He lived in a port called Nantes in northern France .

5. What did Verne do after leaving school ?

@Verne studied to be a lawyer and wrote stories about fantastic journeys .

6. Why did Verne's father stop paying for his studies and asked him to find a job ?

@Because Verne spent a lot of time writing stories about fantastic journeys .

7. What was Verne's first story called ?

@It was called Five Weeks in a Balloon .

8. Why is Jules Verne called the "father of science fiction "?

@Because he wrote stories about air travel, space travel and submarines before planes,

rockets or submarines used.

9. Mention two of Jules Verne's famous novels ?

 @Journey to the Centre of the Earth and Around the World in Eighty Days .

10. What were Jules Verne's novels about ?

@His novels were about air travel, space travel and submarines.

11. What made him interested in travel and exploration ?

@He grew up in a port called Nantes which was always busy with ships coming and going .

Questions on the story 

  1. Why do you think Fogg decided to try to go round the world in eighty days ?

@ He wanted the challenge and the excitement . Perhaps he needed something to fill his free time .

2. Why do you think he has the time to spend traveling like this?

@Because he is a rich man .

  3. How long does Fogg say he will take to go round the world ?  

    What's his friend's opinion ?

@Fogg says it will take him 80 days but his friend doesn't believe him

  4. Why does Phileas Fogg's friend think that he cannot travel round the world in eighty days ?

@Because he thinks it will take longer than eighty days. Most forms of  transport would be too slow .

  5. How do you know that Fogg's friend doesn't believe him when he says he

 will travel around the world in 80 days ?

 @He says if Fogg finishes the Journey in 80 days, he'll win 20.000  pounds.  

  6. How long does it take fogg and his servant to travel from London to Suez ?

  @Seven days.

  7. What does Fogg catch in San Francisco ?

 @A train .

  8. What do they miss in New York ?

  @A boat to Liverpool .

9. What two things do they lose in Britain ?

  @ day and the money.

10 .What's the name of Fogg's servant ?   .

  @Passepartout

  11. Who did Fogg and his servant meet in Suez ? What was he?

 @They met Fix who was a policeman .

  12. Why did Fix want to arrest Fogg ?

  @Because he thought that Fogg was the criminal he was looking for

  13. When was Passepartout kidnapped ?

 @He was kidnapped during the journey form San Francisco to New York.

 14. How did Fogg, his servant and Fix save  a day during the journey around the world ?

   @They crossed the International Date line .

  15. Why did Fogg and his servant win 20.000 pounds ?

    @ Because they finished the journey around the world in 80 days.

  16. How does Fogg's friend bet Fogg ?

  @ He says if Fogg finishes the journey on time, he will win 20.000

17. Who won the bet at the end ?

  @ Fogg won it .

18.How did the three men go from Suez to Bombay ? And to Calcutta?

  @ They went to Bombay by ship, then to Calcutta by train .

19. What difficulties did they face in India ?

  @The railway line was not finished and they had to travel part of the way by elephant .

20. What was the good thing they did on their journey ?

- They saved a young woman ( Aouda )  from death .

21. Where did they go when they left Calcutta ?

  @They traveled by ship to Hong Kong, then across the Pacific to San Francisco .

22. What happened to Passepartout during the journey to New York ? Who rescued him ?

  @ Passepartout was kidnapped and Fogg rescued him .

23. Why did Fix set Fogg free after arresting him ?

  @ Because he realized that Fogg was not the real criminal .

24. At first, they thought they lost the money but then they realized they were mistaken .Explain .

  @ When they missed the train to London, the though they lost the money .

 Passepartout realized they misunderstood the date . Because they had traveled east,

they had passed the international date line .They hurried to the club and won the 20.000.

                     *******************************

         Relative Clause ضمائر الصلة

 

          Who الذي للعاقل  

 1- My brother likes sports.  He is a good businessman.

  My brother who is a good businessman likes sports.

  2-The people are very friendly . They work in the office .                       

   The people who work in the office are very friendly  .

      Which الذي / التي لغير العاقل 

   He ate the apples. They were on the table.

   He ate the apples which were on the table.

      That  للعاقل ولغير العاقل  الذى / التى

    That's the man that I gave the book.

     I like the dress that Mona is wearing.

       Whose للملكية

      I saw the man. His house was big.

      I saw the man whose house was big.

       Where حيث للمكان

      This is the hospital.  My father was treated in it.

       This is the hospital where my father was treated.

       When عندما للزمان   

   I was watching TV. He came late.

 I was watching TV when he     came late .

Rewrite the following sentences :

 1- Is this the boy  ?  The boy annoys his teachers.          (who ) 

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------        

 2- This book is interesting. I’ll lend this book to you .   (which)

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

 3- I bought a wonderful CD last week .                          (which )

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

 4-  the boy was weeping . The boy’s cat died .               (whose )

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

5-  I love a girl with blue eyes .                                        (whose )

 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------    

                                       Unit 15

                           Phobias المخاوف

fear

خوف

exchange…. with

يتبادل مع

extremely

لغاية

recover

يشفى

phobia

هلع

panic

يرعب

dizzy

مصاب بالدوار

avoid

يتجنب

anxiety

قلق

unreasonable

مفرط

sensibly

بادراك

balance

توازن

poisonous

سام

poison

يسمم

bite

يغض

get over illness

يتغلب على المرض

get away

يهرب

catch an illness

يصاب بالمرض

last

يستغرق

find out

يكتشف

tunnel

نفق

born with

مولود ب

lifts

مصاعد

make everything worse

تسوء الأمور

nightmare

كابوس

get away from

يبتعد عن

relaxed

مسترخي

score

يسجل هدفا

clear-headed

صافى الذهن

dusty

مترب

reasonable

معقول

Stonehenge

دائرة  صخرية

stay calm

يبقى هادئا

passengers

مسافرين

unreasonable

غير معقول

get off

ينزل

break down

يتعطل

goal

هدف

fall asleep

يغلبه النوم

affect

يؤثر

session

جلسة

irrational

غير عاقل

situation

موقف

physical

جسدي

therapist

أخصائي معالجة

treatment

علاج

virtual

عملي

heights

مرتفعات

therapy

مداوة

extreme

شديد

mental

عقلي

remain

يبقى

customer

زبون

criminal

مجرم

transport

نقل

society

مجتمع

nervous

عصبي

real

حقيقي

serve

يخدم

rational

عاقل

get on

يركب

unreal

غير حقيقي

questionnaire

استبيان

It takes time to

يستغرق وقتآ ل

nervous

متوتر

get lower marks

يحصل على درجات منخفضة

There is no reason for

لايوجد سبب ل .....

land

do your best

تهبط

أفعل مابوسعك

in control

تحت سيطرة

it doesn't matter

لا يهم

close to

قريب من

experts

خبراء

fail

يفشل

believe in

يؤمن ب

disappoint

يخيب الأمل

gat into

يلتحق ب

silence

صمت

fail an exam

يرسب فى امتحان

confidence

ثقة

suffer from

يعانى من

Phobias

@Phobias aren't just extreme fears .They are irrational fearsخوف غير منطقي

@They can affect people's lives and make them frightened to do things which people do without thinking.

@For example , if you have a fear of heights , you may drive 40 K m  to avoid a high bridge .

@The usual treatment is to show the person who has the phobia what they fear

@If a person has a spider phobia ,first thinks about spider , then looks at photographs of

spiders and finally looks at a real spider.

The therapist الطبيب المعالج  who gives treatment remains calm and helps the patient to

relax. The person with the phobia feels in control of متحكمthe situation and so they don't panic يخاف

@After a few sessions جلسات they realize that the thing that they are afraid of can't hurt them .

@In another treatment the therapist gets close to the spider ands picks it up without showing

 any fear . This helps the patient to see that he or she has nothing to fear .

@Some people with phobias need medicine to help them relax before treatment .

@Treatment can be done in groups where people with the same phobia are helped together .

@It's also possible to have treatment from a computer program, where the patient is put into

a virtual  واقعي   situation with the thing we fear.

                *************************************************

    Questions

 1. What are phobias ?

@Phobias are irrational fears, there is no reason for the person to be so afraid .

2. How is a phobia different from a fear ?

@A phobia is stronger than a fear and is irrational .

3. What kinds of things are people commonly afraid of ?

@Heights, spiders, insects, mice, snakes, flying , the dark etc .

4. Why is it important for the patients with phobias to relax ?                     

@Because the treatment will not work if patients panic .

5. Why do you think it takes a few sessions for patients to realize they do not need to be afraid ?

@It takes time to build up their confidence .

 6. What do phobias cause to people ?

@They affect their lives and make them frightened to do ordinary things .

7.How can we treat patients with phobias ?

@Some patients can be treated in a few sessions with the therapist, others need medicine to help them relax before treatment .

8. How can we treat a patient with spider phobia?

@He realizes that the spiders can't hurt him .

9.Why don't patients of phobia feel panic during treatment ?

@Because the therapist remains calm and helps the patient to relax.  

  10. When does a patient with phobia become well ?

    @After she realizes that the thing they are afraid of can not hurt them.

     11. How can treatment of phobia be done ?

  @- It can be done in groups where people with the same phobia .

        It  can also be done from a computer program .

     12. How can a computer program be used to treat phobias ?

@ The patient is shown a computer program where he or she is put into a virtualsituation with the thing he she fears .

     13. Where is Hong Kong ?

  @  It is in South China Sea near the South east coast of China .

    14.How many small islands does Hong Kong consist of ?

@It consists of 260 small islands .

     15. How many people are there in Hong Kong ?

@There are 6.7 million people in Hong Kong .

     16. How long was Hong Kong part of Britain ?

     @From 1842 to 1997, it was part of Britain .

    17. What sort of people were there in Hong Kong in the port ?

@Only fishermen and farmers lived and worked there .

     18. What is Hong Kong like today ?

      - It is a busy port and an important financial and trade center .

   19. Why do you think Europeans, Americans and Japanese  people live in Hong Kong ? 

@ For business, because it is a successful financial and trade centre.

     20. What are the advantages of living in a society with many different

             nationalities living together ?

@You learn about and experience different lifestyles, food, cultures, You can

      learn different languages .

    21. Although people in Hong Kong live very close to each other, it is a good

       environment to live in . Explain

 @- Hong Kong has quiet parks, beaches and mountains to climb these  things make

         it a good place to live in .

     22. What are the other nationalities living in Hong Kong today ?

@ The other nationalities are Europeans, Americans and Japanese .

     23. What are the most important languages in Hong Kong ?

   @ The most important Languages in Hong Kong are Chinese and English.

                     *************************************************

A letter                                          العنوان

     

      Dear ---اسم المرسل اليه----

                  You can't imagine how happy and pleased I really was on writing to you .

    I hope you are fine and doing well.

    { I'm in pleasure to write to you and tell you about ………………   الموضوع فى الرسالة

        

    I look forward to seeing and hoping to ever heard from you please write soon .

                                          See you soon . Best wishes

                                                                                                            Yours

                                           الراسل

                 ********************************************************

      Models

I'm sure she comes today à she must come today .

It's possible she went thereà She could have gone there.

Perhaps we travel abroadà we may travel abroad .

It was necessary for her to come out -à She had to come out .

Expression

Presentزمن المضارع

Pastالفعل فى الماضى

1. Assertion  التأكد

I think / I'm sure

certainly /definitely

    

must + infمصدر الفعل

 

must +have+PP

2. possibility الإمكانية

It's possible

 

could+ inf

 

could + have+ PP

3. probabilityالاحتمال

It's probable

 

may/ might+ inf

 

may/might+ have+PP

4.Advice النصيحة

It's advisable/

- I advise you to

 

should + inf

ought to + inf

 

should/ (ought to)+ have +pp

5.Necessity الضرورة

It's necessary

 

have to / has to + inf

 

had to + inf

 

6. Notnecessityعدم الضرورة

It's not necessary

 

 

don't / doesn't have to + inf

needn't + inf

didn't have to + inf

needn't + have + pp      

Rewrite the sentences giving the same meanings :

      ( I 'm  sure it was difficult exam . Only one person passed.      (must have) 

         ( Sally's car isn't here . I'm sure she left .                                 (must)

     ( Be careful with that dog . I think it's dangerous.                     (must be)

                                  *********************************

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